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GREEK EDUCATION                            5

influence on human affairs*   In Greece, nature is more kindly,
more readily controlled by man.   The gods of nature, accordingly,
were brought nearer the worshipper's level by being endowed
with human attributes and associated with the walled city which
had displaced the tribe as the unit of social organization;  and
the priesthood was reduced to insignificance as occasional agents
in certain rites and ceremonies*   For these reasons, Greek religion
was not the religion of slaves but of free citizens.   It brought
down men*s thoughts and affections from a dark heaven to a
sunny earth, and led them to seek expression for their spiritual
nature in the ordinary evcry-day relations with man and the world.
In short, the great discovery of the Greeks was that the world in
which man lives is not something foreign to his nature as man,
but is in very truth an ordered world in which he can work out
his own purposes.  Beginning with the discovery that the mysteri-
ous powers on which all life depends are not alien to humanity,
they went on to the discovery that it was possible to be at home
in the world, and on that faith built up a wonderful structure of
art, science, philosophy and free political life in the little city States.
This fine outcome of the Greek spirit, however, was not
realised with equal completeness in all the States.   Up to the
Seventh Century there seems to have been a steady advance
along the whole line.   The tie of blood-kinship, on which citizen-
ship had been based by the Aryan conquerors generally, gave
way to a wider and lcs*$ exclusive franchise depending on the
ownership of land, and in most of the States a republican constitu-
tion displaced the earlier kingship.   With that went a common
progress in culture and social freedom.   But the great growth in
manufacture and sea-borne trade which began about the Skth
Century before Christ in those cities which were near the sea
created a considerable and ever-increasing divergence among
the Greek States.   The States which were compelled by their
situation to confine themselves to agriculture, chief of which was
Lacedcmon with Sparta a its capital, sank back into a narrow
uncultured life and sought compensation in the arts of war,
States like Attica and Corinth, on the other hand, which were
favourably situated for commerce, became both rich and broad-
minded in the exercise of their opportunities, and continued to
develop still further the arts of peace, When we speak of Greece
as the pioneer of European civilization, it is the Greece of the